Research Article | Volume: 8, Issue: 3, May-June, 2020

Albizia lebbeck fruit pods as a substrate for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger

Mamatha Pingili Shailaja Raj Marla Ramakrishna Raparla   

Open Access   

Published:  May 26, 2020

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.803014
Abstract

Aspergillus niger isolated from the soil was investigated for its capability to produce various lignocellulolytic enzymes, such as LiP, endoglucanase, FPase, xylanase by solid-state fermentation, using Albizia lebbeck fruit pods as a substrate. The chemical composition of the fruit pods was studied, and the production pattern of the enzymes was examined by growing the fungi for 25 days. The LiP activity was low, whereas a good production of endoglucanase, FPase, and xylanase enzymes was noted. A dye decolorization capacity of the A. niger was also studied with Congo red. Therefore, A. lebbeck fruit pods which are considered as waste and burnt off can be utilized for the production of holocellulolytic enzymes using A. niger.


Keyword:     Albizia lebbeck LiP endoglucanase FPase xylanase Aspergillus niger.


Citation:

Mamatha P, Shailaja RM, Ramakrishna R. Albizia lebbeck fruit pods as a substrate for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger. J Appl Biol Biotech, 2020;8(03):076-080. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2020.803014

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. INTRODUCTION

Lignocellulose is the most abundant raw material on the earth. It refers to plant dry matter (biomass) and is called lignocellulosic biomass. It is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose (together called holocellulose which are carbohydrate polymers), and lignin (aromatic polymer). The cellulose and hemicellulose are tightly bound to lignin.

Lignocellulose biomass is classified into three types: virgin biomass, waste biomass, and energy crops. All terrestrial plants, such as trees, bushes, and grass are included under virgin biomass. Waste biomass from agriculture, such as sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and straw, and from forestry (paper and saw mills) is included under waste biomass. Energy crops are those with a high yield of lignocellulose biomass that serves as a raw material for the production of second-generation biofuels (switch grass) [13]. There are reports that lignocellulosic biomass has an immense potential for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. It has ample carbon-neutral renewable source which reduces CO2 emissions and air pollution. It can be employed to produce biofuels, biomaterials, and biomolecules [4].

Fungi play a key role in degrading lignocellulose although bacterial degradation is also reported. Three groups of fungi are involved in lignocellulose degradation: soft-rot fungi, brown-rot fungi, and white-rot fungi [5]. The soft-rot fungi attack the polysaccharide component of wood but are capable of degrading lignin to some extent [6]. Aspergillus sp. is an example of soft-rot fungi [7]. The genus Aspergillus is a group of filamentous fungi with a large number of species. Fourteen different groups of Aspergillus were identified [8]. There are eight groups of black Aspergillus identified (A. niger, A. tubingensis, A. heteromorphus, A. ellipticus, A. foetidus, A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, and A. aculeatus) [9]. Of these, A. niger and A. tubingensis are important for industrial applications. The products from many of these species have obtained a generally regarded as safe status which makes them to be used in food and feed applications. A myriad of enzymes produced by Aspergillus are of major importance to the food and feed industry. A good fermentation capabilities and high level of protein secretion make them ideal organisms for industrial applications [10].

Many lignocellulosic materials such as sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, bran, rice straw, and wheat straw have been studied as lignocellulolytic enzyme inducers. Along with conventional crop biomass, invasive weeds could be used as lignocellulosic enzyme inducers [11]. Enormous natural lignocellulosic sources are utilized worldwide, but still huge quantities of lignocellulosic raw materials are not still exploited [12]. Albizia lebbeck Benth., which is commonly called Indian siris or woman’s tongue, is a deciduous tree whose parts have many medicinal values. The limited reports are available on the pods of the tree. They are not even graced by cattle as they contain saponins. The fruits fall on the ground, and they are burnt off, which leads to environmental pollution. The fruit pods of A. lebbeck are used as inducers for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by A. niger isolated from soil [13].


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Plant Material

The fruit pods for the current study were collected from Manakondur village, Karimnagar, Telangana, washed, shade-dried cut into pieces, and made into coarse powder in a blender (1–2 mm).

2.2. Organism

The fungus A. niger was isolated from the soil in the laboratory [13].

2.3. Solid State Fermentation of Fruit Pods of A. lebbeck

About 5 g of the A. lebbeck fruit powder was moistened with 25 ml of distilled water (ALW) and basal medium, (ALBM), separately, inoculated with two mycelial discs (10 mm) per flask, and incubated at 30°C. A duplicate set of flasks was processed at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days. Enzyme extraction [14] was done according to Arora et al. Sodium acetate buffer was added in each flask and kept on a shaker for 1 hour and filtered through a filter paper. The filtrate was then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 minutes, and the supernatant was used as the source of enzymes for assay and stored at 40°C.

2.4. Enzyme Assays

Lignin peroxidase assay was carried out using Azure B [15], and the absorbance was read at 651 nm. The xylanase assay was done according to the method of Bailey et al. [16], and endoglucanase and FPase activities were performed based on the methods proposed by Ghose et al. [17].

2.5. Analytical Methods

The estimation of various components in fruit pods was done by sequential fractionation [18,19]. About 1 g of substrate was suspended in 100 ml of deionized water and heated in a water bath set at 100°C for 2 hours and filtered through a tared crucible. The residue was dried at 90°C until constant weight. The loss was considered as water soluble part. The dried residue was resuspended in 0.5 M H2SO4 and placed on a water bath maintained at 100°C for 2 hours and filtered, dried, and weighed. The loss was represented as hemicellulose. The residue was mixed with 72% H2SO4 (10 ml) maintained at 30°C for 1 hour, thereafter diluted up to 4% H2SO4, and autoclaved at 121°C for 40 minutes. The contents were then filtered, dried, and weighed, and the loss was considered as cellulose and residue as lignin.

2.6. Congo Red Dye Transformation by A. niger

The Congo red decolorization in solid media was assessed by visual disappearance of color from the plate [19]. A dye decolorization in liquid media was measured spectrophotometrically. The decolorization rate was determined according to the following formula:

Decolorization rate (%) = ( A o A I ) A I × 100

Ao = Dye absorbance of control

AI = Dye absorbance after decolorization


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fungi play an important role in lignocellulose degradation and are exploited for the production of the lignocellulose degrading enzymes on a large scale for their use in industry. They grow on a solid substrate with low moisture content (solid-state fermentation). A complex set of enzymes is involved in lignocellulose degradation such as ligninases, cellulases, and hemicellulases. In the present investigation, A. niger, a soft-rot fungus, was exploited for its ability to utilize lignocellulosic biomass of A. lebbeck fruit pods. The fungi were isolated from degrading fruit litter in a previous work in the laboratory and tested qualitatively for the release of various lignocellulolytic enzymes [13]. A. lebbeck fruit pods were collected, washed, shade dried, cut in to pieces, and ground to powder in a blender and sieved (1–2 mm). A solid-state fermentation of the fruit substrate was carried out in two experimental setups by moistening fruit powder with ALW and ALB. SSF was preferred as it is the attractive means to produce enzymes at low investment and operating cost and requires simple equipment, and up on all, the fungi can penetrate deep in to substrate [20,21]. Biochemical constituents of A. lebbeck pods were done [22] and presented in Table 1.

Aspergillus niger was studied for its potential to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes such as LiP, endoglucanase, FPase, and xylanase. LiP breaks down lignin, whereas endoglucanase and FPase are involved in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylanase in hemicellulose degradation. A time course study of SSF of A. lebbeck fruit powder (ALW and ALB in duplicates) was carried out for 25 days and analyzed for the enzymes at an interval of 5 days.

Table 1: Biochemical constituents of A. lebbeck fruit pods.

Biochemical constituents of A. lebbeck fruit (g/Kg)
Parametersg/kg
Water solubles83
Hemicellulose260
Cellulose360
Lignin277

Figure 1: (A) Endoglucanase activity of A. niger on A. lebbeck fruit pods, (B) FPase activity of A. niger using A. lebbeck fruit pods, (C): Xylanase activity of A. niger using A. lebbeck fruit pods, (D): LiP activity of A. niger on A. lebbeck fruit pods.

[Click here to view]

Endoglucanase activity of diluted extract was highest on the 10th day of incubation in both ALW and ALB (0.7 and 0.698 μmol/minutes/ml, respectively) and gradually decreased with incubation time. Both ALW and ALB exhibited the same pattern of endoglucanase activity during the 25-day fermentation (Fig. 1A). FPase activity was maximum on the 15th day of incubation both in ALW (6.77 U/ml) and ALB (5.09 U/ml), and thereafter, it decreased gradually till 25th day of incubation (Fig. 1B). It was noted that the xylanase activity of ALW increased till 15th day of incubation and that of ALB till 20th day of incubation with the maximum xylanase activity of 9.55 U/ml (15th day) for ALW and 10.15 U/ml (20th day) for ALB (Fig. 1C). Cellulolytic activities were studied with various other substrates. The studies on rice straw degradation with A. niger revealed 130 U/gds of cellulase activity [23]. Soybean hulls were used as a substrate, and 3.2 U/ml of cellulase activity and 248.9 U/ml of xylanase activity were reported [24]. When Prosopis juliflora pods [25] were used, the cellulase activity of 1825.32 U/l and xylanase activity of 311.24 U/l was noted using Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1186. Endoglucanase activity of 3.42 U/g and Fpase activity of 1.77 U/g by Aspergillus niger was reported when coir waste was used as a substrate [26]. The studies on FPase and endoglucanase production by A. niger using wheat bran, rice bran, groundnut powder, and saw dust were reported [27]. FPase activity of 2.9, 2.09, and 1.62 FPU/g for wheat bran, groundnut fodder, and rice bran, respectively, was observed in the same study.. The highest titers of endoglucanase were recorded for wheat bran (3.24 U/g) and 1.36 U/g by groundnut fodder and 1.09 U/g by rice bran [27]. There are reports on xylanase activity of A. niger using sugarcane bagasse (110 U ml−1) and cassava bagasse (more than 160 U ml−1) [28]. It is arduous to compare the cellulolytic activities reported with other substrates as the authors demonstrated the activity in different units.

There are no reports on LiP activity by A. niger. In the present study, LiP activity was noted (Fig. 1D). Attempt to perform LiP activity was made as the fungi decolorized Azure B while qualitative screening was done in a previous study [13]. The LiP (0.344 U/ml for ALW and 0.306 U/ml for ALB) production was very low when compared to LiP produced by white-rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium which produced 1.80 U/ml using the same A. lebbeck fruit pod as a substrate [29]. The study on LiP production using Achras zapota [7] was reported to be 2,100 U/ml. The degradation of Azure B in the qualitative studies may be attributed to other lignin degrading enzymes (manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, or dye-decolorizing peroxidase), which are not covered under the purview of this study.

There is an increase in the water solubles with incubation period which indicates the degradation of lignocellulosic components into low molecular weight components. A loss in total organic matter (TOM), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and water solubles was analyzed according to the method of Datta [17] (Table 2). A comparison between TOM loss and loss in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is shown in Figure 2. A strong correlation existed between TOM loss and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose loss. A strong positive correlation of 0.921 (ALW) and 0.964 (ALB) was noted between lignin loss and TOM loss. A correlation of 0.959 (ALW) and 0.863 (ALB) was observed between cellulose loss and TOM loss. Hemicellulose loss and TOM loss when compared had shown a correlation of 0.713 (ALW) and 0.905 (ALB). It can be noted that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose loss contributed to TOM loss. Although LiP activity was low in A. niger, it degraded lignin efficiently, which indicates that other ligninolytic enzymes (MnP, Vp, etc.) may be responsible for lignin degradation. On the whole, A. niger exhibited a good cellulase and xylanase activity using A. lebbeck fruit pods as a substrate.

Table 2: Variations in A. lebbeck fruit composition during fermentation for 25 days.

S. noParametersDays of incubation
510152025
a1ALWTOM103070105135
Water solubles6555656080
Hemicellulose85123132133128
Cellulose100120230250270
Lignin loss4560135150145
2ALBTOM10155090125
Water solubles6055706590
Hemicellulose7995110115121
Cellulose120165225240240
Lignin loss456095145148


Figure 2: Comparison of TOM loss and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose loss.

[Click here to view]

Figure 3: (A) Decolorization of Congo red on solid media and (B) liquid media.

[Click here to view]

The Congo red decolorization by A. niger was preliminarily evaluated in solid media. Decolorization was determined as the disappearance of the red color during fungal growth (Fig. 3A). The complete disappearance of the red color was achieved on the 6th day of fungal growth. Decolorization in liquid media was performed using Czapek–Dox medium. The total removal of dye was attained after 7 days of incubation (Fig. 3B). The decolorization capacity of the organism may be due to dye- decolorizing peroxidases, a new family of heme peroxidases. These enzymes have been demonstrated to perform lignin degradation [30].


4. CONCLUSION

Albizia lebbeck fruit pods used in the current study can be an attractive carbon source for enzyme production under solid-state fermentation by A. niger. Further, the pods can be subjected to pretreatment with acid or alkali and analyze the production of the enzymes.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are grateful and thankful to the management of Vaageswari Group of Institutions for permitting to carry out the work in the institution.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

None.


REFERENCES

1. Kirby R. Actinomycetes and lignin degradation. Adv Appl Microbiol 2005;58:125–68. CrossRef

2. Gao H, Wang Y, Zhang W, Wang W, Mu Z. Isolation, identification and application in lignin degradation of an ascomycete GHJ-4. Afr J Biotechno 2011;10(20):4166–74.

3. Amr A, Hanafy EJ, Hassan E, Abd-Elsalam HE, Elsayed E. Molecular characterization of two native Egyptian ligninolytic bacterial strains. J Appl Sci Res 2009;4:1291–6.

4. Maki-Arvela P, Anugwom I, Virtanen P, Sjoholm R, Mikkola JP. Dissolution of lignocellulosic materials and its constituents using ionic liquids—a review. Ind Crop Prod 2010;32:175–201. CrossRef

5. Ericksson LEL, Blanchette RA, Ander P. Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, .

6. Dix NJ, Webstar J. Fungal ecology. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1995. CrossRef

7. Kumar AG, Sekaran G, Krishnamoorthy S, Solid state fermentation of Achras zapota lignocelluloses by phanerochaete chrysosporium. Bioresource Technol 2006;97:1521–8. CrossRef

8. Raper KB, Thom C. A manual of the Aspergilli. Philadelphia, PA: Williams & Wilkins company; 1945. pp 1–875.

9. Perenicova L, Benen JAE, Samson RA, Visser J. Evaluation of RFLP analysis of the classification of selected aspergilla. Mycol Res ;101:810–4. CrossRef

10. Davies, RW. Heterologous gene expression and protein secretion in Aspergillus. Prog Ind Microbiol ;29:527–60.

11. Adak A, Singh S, Lavanya AK, Sharma A, Nain L. Sustainable production of biofuels from weedy biomass and other unconventional lignocellulose wastes. Springer Int Publ AG 2018. CrossRef

12. Sethi S, Datta A, Gupta BL, Gupta S. Optimization of cellulase production from bacteria isolated from soil. Int Scholarly Res notices ; 985685:1–7. CrossRef

13. Pingili M, Marla SR, Raparla R, Vanga S. Isolation and screening of lignocellulose degrading fungi from degraded Fruit Litter. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci ;6(12):2200–6 CrossRef

14. Arora DS, Chander M, Gill PK. Involvement of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase in degradation and selective ligninolysis of wheat straw. Int Biodeterior Biodegr 2002;50:115–20. CrossRef

15. Arora DS, Gill PK. Comparision of two assay procedures for lignin peroxidase. Enzyme Microb Technol 2001;28(7–8):602–5. CrossRef

16. Michael JB, Peter B, Kaisa P. Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity. J Biotechnol 1992;23(3):257–70. CrossRef

17. Ghose TK. Measurement of cellulase activities. Pure Appl Chem; 59(2):257–68 CrossRef

18. Datta R. Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose acid yield and conversion of components. Biotechnol Bioeng 1981;23:2167–70. CrossRef

19. Sharma RK, Arora DS Biodegradation of paddy straw obtained from different geographic locations by means of Phlebia spp. for animal feed. Biodegradation 2011;22:143–52. CrossRef

20. Asses N, Ayed L, Hkiri N, Hamdi M. Congored decolorisation and detoxification by Aspergillus niger: removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway. BioMed Res Int 2018;3049686:9. CrossRef

21. Robinson T, Singh D, Nigam P. Solid state fermentation: a promising microbial technology for secondary metabolite production. Appl Microbiol Biot 2001;55:284–9. CrossRef

22. Ayeni AO, Adeeyo OA, Oresegun OM, Oladimeji TE. Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: evaluation of an economically viable method suitable for woody and non-woody biomass. Am J Eng Res ;4(4):14–9.

23. Kang SW, Park YS, Hong SI, Kim SW. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by aspergillus niger KK2 from lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol ;91:153–6. CrossRef

24. Coffman AM, Li Q, Ju LK. Effect of natural and pretreated soybean Hulls on enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2014;91:1331–8. CrossRef

25. Jampala P, Tadikamalla S, Preethi M, Ramanujam S, Uppuluri KB. Concurrent production of cellulose and xylanase from Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1186: enhancement of production by desirability-based multi-objective method. Biotech 2017;7:14. CrossRef

26. Mrudula S, Murugammal R. Production of cellulase by Aspergillus niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as substrate. Braz J Microbiol 2011;42:1119–27. CrossRef

27. Chandra MS, Vishwanath B, Reddy BR. Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger. Indian J Microbiol 2007;47:323–8. CrossRef

28. Díaz GV, Coniglio RO, Velazquez JE, Zapata PD, Villalba L, Fonseca MI. Adding value to lignocellulosic wastes via their use for endoxylanase production by Aspergillus fungi. Mycologia 2019;111:2, 195–205. CrossRef

29. Viniegra G, Favela E, Aguilar C, Romero S, Diaz G, Augur C. Advantages of fungal enzyme production in solid state over liquid fermentation systems. Biochem Eng J ;13(2–3):157–67. CrossRef

30. Palmieri , Cennamo G, Sannia G. Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorisation by the fungus Pleurotus Ostreatus and its oxidative enzymatic system. Enzyme Microb Tech 2005;36:17–24. CrossRef

Reference

1. Kirby R. Actinomycetes and lignin degradation. Adv Appl Microbiol 2005;58:125-68.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2164(05)58004-3

2. Gao H, Wang Y, Zhang W, Wang W, Mu Z. Isolation, identification and application in lignin degradation of an ascomycete GHJ-4. Afr J Biotechno 2011;10(20):4166-74.

3. Amr A, Hanafy EJ, Hassan E, Abd-Elsalam HE, Elsayed E. Molecular characterization of two native Egyptian ligninolytic bacterial strains. J Appl Sci Res 2009;4:1291-6.

4. Maki-Arvela P, Anugwom I, Virtanen P, Sjoholm R, Mikkola JP. Dissolution of lignocellulosic materials and its constituents using ionic liquids-a review. Ind Crop Prod 2010;32:175-201.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.04.005

5. Ericksson LEL, Blanchette RA, Ander P. Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, .

6. Dix NJ, Webstar J. Fungal ecology. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1995.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0693-1

7. Kumar AG, Sekaran G, Krishnamoorthy S, Solid state fermentation of Achras zapota lignocelluloses by phanerochaete chrysosporium. Bioresource Technol 2006;97:1521-8.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.06.015

8. Raper KB, Thom C. A manual of the Aspergilli. Philadelphia, PA: Williams & Wilkins company; 1945. pp 1-875.

9. Perenicova L, Benen JAE, Samson RA, Visser J. Evaluation of RFLP analysis of the classification of selected aspergilla. Mycol Res ;101:810-4.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0953756297003444

10. Davies, RW. Heterologous gene expression and protein secretion in Aspergillus. Prog Ind Microbiol ;29:527-60.

11. Adak A, Singh S, Lavanya AK, Sharma A, Nain L. Sustainable production of biofuels from weedy biomass and other unconventional lignocellulose wastes. Springer Int Publ AG 2018.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95480-6_4

12. Sethi S, Datta A, Gupta BL, Gupta S. Optimization of cellulase production from bacteria isolated from soil. Int Scholarly Res notices ; 985685:1-7.https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/985685

13. Pingili M, Marla SR, Raparla R, Vanga S. Isolation and screening of lignocellulose degrading fungi from degraded Fruit Litter. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci ;6(12):2200-6https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.612.252

14. Arora DS, Chander M, Gill PK. Involvement of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase in degradation and selective ligninolysis of wheat straw. Int Biodeterior Biodegr 2002;50:115-20.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-8305(02)00064-1

15. Arora DS, Gill PK. Comparision of two assay procedures for lignin peroxidase. Enzyme Microb Technol 2001;28(7-8):602-5.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00302-7

16. Michael JB, Peter B, Kaisa P. Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity. J Biotechnol 1992;23(3):257-70.https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1656(92)90074-J

17. Ghose TK. Measurement of cellulase activities. Pure Appl Chem; 59(2):257-68https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198759020257

18. Datta R. Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose acid yield and conversion of components. Biotechnol Bioeng 1981;23:2167-70.https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260230921

19. Sharma RK, Arora DS Biodegradation of paddy straw obtained from different geographic locations by means of Phlebia spp. for animal feed. Biodegradation 2011;22:143-52.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-010-9383-7

20. Asses N, Ayed L, Hkiri N, Hamdi M. Congored decolorisation and detoxification by Aspergillus niger: removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway. BioMed Res Int 2018;3049686:9.https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3049686

21. Robinson T, Singh D, Nigam P. Solid state fermentation: a promising microbial technology for secondary metabolite production. Appl Microbiol Biot 2001;55:284-9.https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530000565

22. Ayeni AO, Adeeyo OA, Oresegun OM, Oladimeji TE. Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic materials: evaluation of an economically viable method suitable for woody and non-woody biomass. Am J Eng Res ;4(4):14-9.

23. Kang SW, Park YS, Hong SI, Kim SW. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by aspergillus niger KK2 from lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol ;91:153-6.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00172-X

24. Coffman AM, Li Q, Ju LK. Effect of natural and pretreated soybean Hulls on enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2014;91:1331-8.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-014-2480-8

25. Jampala P, Tadikamalla S, Preethi M, Ramanujam S, Uppuluri KB. Concurrent production of cellulose and xylanase from Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1186: enhancement of production by desirability-based multi-objective method. Biotech 2017;7:14.https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0607-y

26. Mrudula S, Murugammal R. Production of cellulase by Aspergillus niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as substrate. Braz J Microbiol 2011;42:1119-27.https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822011000300033

27. Chandra MS, Vishwanath B, Reddy BR. Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger. Indian J Microbiol 2007;47:323-8.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-007-0059-x

28. Díaz GV, Coniglio RO, Velazquez JE, Zapata PD, Villalba L, Fonseca MI. Adding value to lignocellulosic wastes via their use for endoxylanase production by Aspergillus fungi. Mycologia 2019;111:2, 195-205.https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1556557

29. Viniegra G, Favela E, Aguilar C, Romero S, Diaz G, Augur C. Advantages of fungal enzyme production in solid state over liquid fermentation systems. Biochem Eng J ;13(2-3):157-67.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00128-6

30. Palmieri , Cennamo G, Sannia G. Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorisation by the fungus Pleurotus Ostreatus and its oxidative enzymatic system. Enzyme Microb Tech 2005;36:17-24.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2004.03.026

Article Metrics
36 Views 133 Downloads 169 Total

Year

Month

Related Search

By author names

Similar Articles

Serum malondialdehyde levels in lung cancer patients

Mohammed RafiqKhan, Sudha Sellappa

Effects of Dietary Lipid Sources on Growth and Survival of Mudfish Heterobranchus longifilis Fingerlings

Reginald Inodu Keremah, Tarila Terimokumo

The response of phycobiliproteins to light qualities in Anabaena circinalis

S. K. Ojit, Th. Indrama, O. Gunapati, S. O. Avijeet, S. A. Subhalaxmi, Ch. Silvia, D. W. Indira, Kh. Romi, Sh. Minerva, D. A. Thadoi, O. N. Tiwari, G. D. Sharma

Modulation of phycobiliprotein production in Nostoc muscorum through culture manipulation

Onkar Nath Tiwari, Wangkhem Indira Devi, Chungkham Silvia, Angom Thadoi Devi, Gunapati Oinam, Oinam Avijeet Singh, Keithellakpam Ojit Singh, Thingujam Indrama, Aribam Subhalaxmi Sharma, Romi Khangembam, Minerva Shamjetshabam, Longjam Miranda, Radha Prasanna

Visible Diode Laser Enhancement of Exotic DNA Uptake by Fowl Sperm

Essam A. El-Gendy, Mona M. Abdelaziz, Mohamed M. Abdelfattah, Mohamed S. Salama, YhiaM. Badr

Effect of external pH on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins production and ammonium excretion

Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Tiwari Onkar Nath, Avijeet Singh Oinam, Indrama Thingujam, Gunapati Oinam, Sharma Gauri Dutt

Screening and evaluation of non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria for lipid and commercially viable fatty acids

Indrama Thingujam, Tiwari Onkar Nath, Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Gunapati Oinam, Avijeet Singh Oinam, Sarabati Kangjam, Bidyababy Thiyam, Indira Wangkhem, Silvia Chungkham, Subhalaxmi Aribam, Romi Khangembam, Thadoi Angom, Sharma Gauri Dutt

Effect of Quail Egg Pretreatment on the Lipid Profile and Histomorphology of the Liver of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Patrick Emeka Aba, Chiamaka Pearl Eneasato, Jonas Anayo Onah

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aerva lanata (Linn.) on alloxan induced diabetic rats

Ramalingam Vidhya , Rajangam Udayakumar

Studies on the Optimization of Lipase Production by Rhizopus sp. ZAC3 Isolated from the Contaminated Soil of a Palm Oil Processing Shed

Zainab Adenike Ayinla, Adedeji Nelson Ademakinwa, Femi Kayode Agboola

Impact of single visit of Lipotriches collaris Vachal 1903 (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) flowers at Maroua (Cameroon)

Chantal Douka, Joseph Lebel Tamesse, Fernand-Nestor Fohouo tchuenguem

Hypolipidemic effects of Lysinibacillus sphaericus fermented tomato and carrot juices in high-fat diet-fed albino Wistar rats

Naga Sivudu Seelam, Umamahesh Katike, Peddanna Kotha, Harika Akula, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam

Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, Apo A-1, and Apo B in patients with Stroke in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

J. O. Akande, A. A. Salawu, A. S. Atiba, E. O. Oke, R. O. Akande, D. P. Oparinde, P. S. Ogunro

Physical characteristics of nanoliposomes prepared from hydrolyzed cannabis protein

Shiva Ganji, Ali Mohamadi Sani, Elham Mahdian, Zahra Sayyed-Alangi

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Optimization of physical parameters for the growth and lipid production in Nannochloropsis gaditana (Lubian, 1982)

Shyni MarKose, Ajan Chellappan, Praba Thangamani, Subilal George, Selvaraj Thangaswamy, Citarasu Thavasimuthu, Michaelbabu Mariavincent

Optimization of culture conditions for mycelial growth and fruiting body production of naturally-occurring Philippine mushroom Lentinus swartzii Berk

Rich Milton R. Dulay, Esperanza C. Cabrera, Sofronio P. Kalaw, Renato G. Reyes

Neurotensin agonist PD 149163 modulates the hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal axis impairment in lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice

Ankit Mishra, Krishna Pal Singh

Thidiazuron outpaces 6-benzylamino purine and kinetin in delaying flower senescence in Gladiolus grandiflora by alleviating physiological and biochemical responses

Madhulika Singh, Neha Tiwari

Pharmacological evaluation of Prosopis ruscifolia extract on lipid profile in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic mice

Juan R. Centurión, Elena M. G. Diarte, Antonia Galeano, María S. Soverina, Wilfrido Arrúa, María L. Kennedy, Miguel A. Campuzano-Bublitz

Role of lipid droplets in diatoms for biofuel production

Rishanpreet Kaur, Lovepreet Kaur, Shristy Gautam

Stress factors’ effects on the induction of lipid synthesis of microalgae

Shakirov Zair Saatovich, Khalilov Ilkhom Mamatkulovich, Khujamshukurov Nortoji

Biochemical evaluation and molecular docking studies on encapsulated astaxanthin for the growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Suganya Vasudevan, Anuradha Venkatraman, Syed Ali Mohammed Yahoob, Sasirekha, Malathi Jojula, Ravikumar Sundaram, P Boomi

Genetic polymorphism of soybean genotypes with contrasting levels of phosphatidylcholine, protein, and lipoxygenase-2

Aseem Kumar Anshu,, Trupti Tayalkar, Anita Rani, Vineet Kumar, Hamendra Singh Parmar

Dietary product based on sea urchin caviar and Sardinops melanostictus fat

Mouhamad Alrajab, Lidiya Vasilevna Shulgina

Model for metabolism of arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase as 5, 6-LTA4 synthase in the sheep uterus: Evidence from in vitro studies

A. Sai Padma, K. Anil Kumar, P. Reddanna

Identification, production, and purification of a novel lipase from Bacillus safensis

Krishna Patel, Samir Parikh

Records of wild mushrooms in the Philippines: A review

Rich Milton R. Dulay, Joshua N. Batangan, Sofronio P. Kalaw, Angeles M. De Leon, Esperanza C. Cabrera, Kenichiro Kimura, Fumio Eguchi, Renato G. Reyes

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin a proinflammatory polypeptide necessary for host cell survival in bacterial infection

Nichita Yadav Aare, Pawan Kumar Anoor, Swathi Raju M, N. Srinivas Naik, Sandeepta Burgula

Mangrove algae as sustainable microbial cell factory for cellulosic biomass degradation and lipid production

Shrestha Debnath, Dipankar Ghosh

Rapid and visual detection of leptospira interrogans using polymerase spiral reaction assay

Archana Vishwakarma, Punith Chowdary, Mohandass Ramya

Evaluation of pancreatic lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from ethanolic extract of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flowers

Ratna Djamil, Diah Kartika Pratami, Tia Novia Wilantika, Qurrata A’yun, Abdul Mun’im, Asep Bayu, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

Impact of nanoparticles on microalgae and the prospects for biofuel production: Current advancements and future outlook

Richa Pahariya, Abhishek Chauhan, Anuj Ranjan,, S. K. Thakur¸ Hardeep Singh Tuli, Seema Ramniwas, Moyad Shahwan,, Tanu Jindal

Comparative analysis of two catalytically distinct endoglucanases from Aspergillus nidulans

Baljit Kaur, H.S. Oberoi, B.S. Chadha

Morphological, enzymatic screening, and phylogenetic analysis of thermophilic bacilli isolated from five hot springs of Myagdi, Nepal

Punam Yadav , Suresh Korpole, Gandham S Prasad, Girish Sahni , Jyoti Maharjan, Lakshmaiah Sreerama, Tribikram Bhattarai

Production and optimization of enzyme xylanase by Aspergillus flavus using agricultural waste residues

Jyoti Richhariya, Tirthesh Kumar Sharma, Sippy Dassani

Optimization of process and conditions for enhanced xylanase production under SSF using inexpensive agro-industrial waste

Vimalashanmugam Kanagasabai, Karuppaiya Maruthai

Cloning and expression of a GH11 xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 in Pichia pastoris GS115: Purification and characterization

Sagar Krishna Bhat,, Kavya Purushothaman, Appu Rao Gopala Rao Appu Rao, K Ramachandra Kini

Engineering to enhance thermostability of xylanase: For the new era of biotechnology

Chitranshu Pandey, Pallavi Sharma, Neeraj Gupta

Fermentation medium optimization for the 1,4-ß-Endoxylanase production from Bacillus pumilus using agro-industrial waste

Varsha D. Savanth, B. S. Gowrishankar, K. B. Roopa