Research Article | Volume 11, Issue 6, November, 2023

Metabolic profile, bioactivities, and variations in chemical constituents of essential oils of twenty mango ginger (Curcuma amada) accessions

Jyotirmayee Lenka Snehalata Khuntia Basudeba Kar Suprava Sahoo   

Open Access   

Published:  Oct 25, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.129372
Abstract

Curcuma amada Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), commonly called as amba ada or mango ginger, is an important aromatic plant having both medicinal and culinary properties. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to select high essential oil yielding germplasm among C. amada accessions collected from different regions and to evaluate its antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities. Out of 20 accessions analyzed, Ca17 showed highest oil yield (1.35 ± 0.036%), while Ca10 accession showed lowest yield (0.12 ± 0.015%) in rhizome oil. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis revealed 56 bioactive compounds identifying myrcene (67.59–72.97%), (Z)-(Z)- Geranyl linalool (4.3–7.79%), (Z)-(E)-Geranyl linalool (4.05–7.23%), β-ocimene (2.9–6.33%), and β-pinene (1.23–4.82%) as the dominant compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of C. amada was tested against four different bacteria, in which Ca17 was found to have good to moderate antimicrobial activities against all the tested microorganisms. Further, the antioxidant activity of all the accessions were also evaluated, in which Ca17 showed considerable antioxidant property with IC50 value 32.05 μg/mL. C. amada, being an untapped plant known for its morphological resemblance with ginger and mango-aroma and having antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, could serve as a good source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Based on these results, it could be suggested that C. amada’s rhizome oil could be used for food and pharmaceutical applications as a bioresource of antioxidants and antimicrobials


Keyword:     Essential oil Curcuma amada Gas chromatography mass spectrometry Antimicrobial property Antioxidant activity


Citation:

Lenka J, Khuntia S, Kar B, Sahoo S. Metabolic profile, bioactivities, and variations in chemical constituents of essential oils of 20 mango ginger (Curcuma amada) accessions. J App Biol Biotech. 2023;11(6):147-157. http://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2023.129372

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Zingiberaceae family is a notable family of medicinal, economic, and aromatic plants recognized for volatile oils and also have been used in the cosmetic industry [1]. In the family Zingiberaceae, constituting the genus Curcuma contains over 80 species of paramount importance endowed with widespread adaptation to a variety of environments [2]. Most of the coloring and flavoring agents found in Asian cuisine, traditional medicine, spices, dyes, perfumes, cosmetics, and ornamental plants come from this genus [3].

Curcuma amada Roxb., commonly acknowledged as amba ada or mango ginger [4], is a prime aromatic and medicinal plant grows extensively in the countries of Indian subcontinent and has morphological characteristics similar to ginger (Zingiber officinale), but its taste recalls raw mango [5]. There is 43% of amylose in mango ginger starch, which shares the same characteristics as Curcuma longa and Z. officinale starch [6]. It is being cultivated in many parts of Odisha [7] but has no commercial cultivation. From ancient times, C. amada has been used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of uses, including coolant, appetizer, antipyretic, diuretic, expectorant, and laxative. It is also likely to alleviate biliousness, and itching, and cures an array of skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, and inflammation caused by injury [8,9]. Moreover, enterokinase found in mango-ginger improves digestion, detoxifies the body, and improves skin tone [10]. Among its many pharmaceutical properties, the rhizome essential oil (ROs) of C. amada has antimicrobial [11], anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity [7,9,12]. Furthermore, camphor present in the RO reduces inflammation, which helps clear blocked bronchi, larynx, pharynx, and other airway parts of phlegm and mucus [13]. Besides its medicinal properties, rhizomes of this plant are used to flavor various foods such as chutney, dahi vada, pickles, curd water rice, and more in Odisha (India) [4]. In addition, it is a key ingredient in candies, sauces, curries, and salad dressings [14]. Dried ginger powder is used in a variety of foodstuffs, including baked goods and desserts [15].

As a part of many natural biological processes in our bodies, including digestion, breathing, converting fats into energy, and metabolizing alcohol and drugs produce harmful substances known as free radicals [16,17]. Moreover, modern lifestyle factors such as unhealthy diets, insufficient exercise, heavy metals, smoking, food additives, pesticides, and environmental pollution can contribute in the occurrence of oxidative stress [18]. Free radicals can increase oxidative stress and can damage the macromolecules, contributing to the pathological processes of various diseases [17]. Antioxidants are found to be effective against diseases related to degenerative disorders such as diabetes, arthritis, immune-related disorders, and many others [19]. Again, allopathy is generally used due to its “quick-fix” nature, but its efficacy can eventually get diminished after years as the bacterial strains evolve to resist the drug made to destroy them; however, medicinal plants destroy the root cause of diseases [20]. The essential oil of C. amada extracted from rhizome has efficient antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics [4,21]. Phytochemicals such as myrcene, β-pinene, ocimene, α-pinene, sabinene, and many others are found in the ROs of C. amada evaluated through Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [19,21]. A number of epidemiological studies have linked phytochemicals with a series of bioactivities associated with health benefits. The bioactivity of many phytoconstituents is believed to be higher in the form in which they are found in nature [8,21].

There are several factors that influence the yield of essential oil and phytocomposition of mango ginger, including its genetic makeup, growing conditions, origin, chemotypes, and the nutritional value of soil [11]. At present, only a few reports are available on chemical analyses, antioxidant, and antimicrobial studies of C. amada [4,7,21]. However, phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds using GC-MS along with bioactivity screening including antimicrobial and antioxidant of different accessions collected from Odisha has not yet been done to date. Therefore, an attempt has been made to assess the variation in phytochemicals and bioactivities of different accessions of C. amada.


2. METHODOLOGY

2.1. Collection of Plant Samples

The plant samples of different accessions of C. amada were collected from various geographical locations of Odisha [Table 1 and Figure 1] and were later identified by a taxonomist. The identified samples were planted in the green house for sample maintenance in the Siksha O Anusandhan herbarium for further future use.

Table 1: Geographical coordinates of collected Curcuma amada accessions.

S. No.Sample codePlace of collectionVoucher specimen numberAltitude (m)LatitudeLongitude
1.Ca 1Udala, Mayurbhanj2420/CBT32222.00313°86.2574°
2.Ca 2Dutiala, Kendrapara2421/CBT1320.5848°86.6611°
3.Ca 3Daspalla, Nayagarh2422/CBT11020.09556°85.01240°
4.Ca 4Patrapur, Kendrapara2423/CBT1320.5848°86.6611°
5.Ca 5Barabati, Jajpur2424/CBT33120.7652°86.1752°
6.Ca 6Fakirpur, Keonjhar2425/CBT48021.6289°85.5817°
7.Ca 7Berhampur, Ganjam2426/CBT919.5860°84.6897°
8.Ca 8Kandhamal2427/CBT91519.541331°84.74916°
9.Ca 9Raikia, Phulbani2428/CBT48520.4797°84.2331°
10.Ca 10Udayagiri, Gajapati2429/CBT150119.1912°84.1857°
11.Ca 11Tulasipur, Cuttack2430/CBT3620.4625°85.8830°
12.Ca 12Sahebnagar, Khurda2431/CBT7520.1301°85.4788°
13.Ca 13Jatamundia, Cuttack2432/CBT3620.4625°85.8830°
14.Ca 14Andapur, Keonjhar2433/CBT48021.6289°85.5817°
15.Ca 15Ambiki, Jagatsinghpur2434/CBT1520.1976°86.3377°
16.Ca 16Dumduma, Khurda2435/CBT7520.1301°85.4788°
17.Ca 17Choudwar, Cuttack2436/CBT3620.4625°85.8830°
18.Ca 18Patia, Khurda2437/CBT7520.1301°85.8830°
19.Ca 19Jaraka, Jajpur2438/CBT33120.7652°86.1752°
20.Ca 20Nabarangpur2439/CBT5918.1322°85.451°
Figure 1: Curcuma amada rhizomes collected from different regions of Odisha.



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2.2. Extraction of Essential Oil

Fresh samples of rhizome (100 g) of C. amada were taken for oil extraction through hydro distillation for about 5–6 h with the help of a Clevenger-type apparatus. To remove the moisture content in the extracted oil, it was treated with anhydrous sodium sulfate and was preserved in the refrigerator (4°C) until further analysis. The oil yield percentage was evaluated on the fresh weight basis (v/w).

2.3. Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil

GC-MS analysis was carried out using Clarus 580 Gas Chromatogram (Perkin Elmer, USA) equipped with a MS detector with Helium gas as a carrier gas with flow rate of 1 mL/min. 0.1 μL of rhizome essential oil was injected and the Elite-5 column (30 cm length × 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 μm) was used. The oven temperature was equilibrated at 50°C for 1 min, heated at 5°C/min to 230°C with 5 min hold, and finally raised at 15°C/min to 260°C with 1 min hold. At 250°C and 260°C, the temperature of the injector and both the transfer line, and ion source was set, respectively. The total run time was 45 min. The scanning was done over a mass scan range of 50–600 m/z. The ion chromatogram and mass spectra were acquired using Turbo mass TM software 5.4. The n-alkane series was used for retention index (RI) identification, and compound identification was done through Adams Library [22].

2.4. Antioxidant Activities

The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay following the protocol of Sahoo et al. with slight modifications [23]. Different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 μg/mL) of methanolic solution of essential oils were mixed with 1 mL of 0.1 mM DPPH. The reaction mixtures were mixed properly and were kept at room temperature for 30 min in dark. At 517 nm, the absorbance of the sample was measured using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). Butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid were taken as the positive control meanwhile methanol and DPPH solution was taken as control and IC50 value was measured.

2.5. Bacterial Strains

The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of C. amada rhizome was illustrated against two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). The bacterial strains were collected from the Department of Microbiology, SOADU, Bhubaneswar.

2.6. Antimicrobial Activity

The antimicrobial activity was measured by checking the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth microdilution method as described by the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and following the protocol of Dash et al. [24]. The experiment was accomplished using Mueller–Hinton Broth (MHB) for all the bacterial strains. The rhizome essential oils (100 μL) with a concentration of 100 μg/mL were prepared by mixing them with dimethyl sulfoxide in sterile Eppendorf tubes. The viable bacterial culture (106 CFU/mL of microorganisms) was prepared from overnight suspension. The rhizome volatile oils were analyzed by a 2-fold serial-dilution method with MHB in a 96-microtiter (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) plate. Ampicillin was taken as standard. MIC was defined as the concentration that showed no growth visibility or turbidity during the highest dilution of the sample.


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. GC-MS Analysis

Rhizomes of C.amada yields a good amount of essential oil (0.12–1.35% v/w) [Table 2] which was a pale yellow liquid having a strong aroma. It was reported that 0.5% (v/w) of rhizome oil yield on fresh weight basis taken from the foothills of Uttarakhand, India [25], while 1.25% (v/w) of rhizome oil yield was reported from Kerala Agriculture University, India [26]. Later, in the present experiment, the RO was subjected to GC-MS analysis which detected 56 peaks. The analysis revealed a total of 84.38–97.37% detectable area percentage comprising all major and minor constituents. Parenthetically, the C. amada ROs of all the accessions were composed mainly of monoterpenoids (89%) with 83% hydrocarbons and 6% of oxygenated counterparts [Figure 2]. Alike the present study findings monoterpenoids (97.22%) with a major 96.75% of hydrocarbon fraction and 0.97% of oxygenated ones were found predominantly in C. amada RO [25]. The essential oils of the mango ginger (Curcuma amada) accessions were found to contain a total of 56 compounds. The major constituents identified were myrcene (67.59–72.97%), (Z)-(Z)-Geranyl linalool (4.3–7.79%), (Z)-(E)-Geranyl linalool (4.05–7.23%), β-ocimene (2.9–6.33%), and β-pinene (1.23–4.82%). Additionally, α-pinene (0.1–0.96%) and (E)-caryophyllene (0.01–1.95%) were present as minor constituents in the essential oils [Table 3 and Figure 3]. A similar study on C. amada RO reported myrcene (40%) and β-pinene (11.78%) as the major constituents [7]. On contrary, a phytochemical screening of RO EOs detected 28 constituents in which ar-curcumene (28.1%), camphor (11.2%), β-cumene (11.2%), curzerenone (7.1%), and eucalyptol (6.0%) were identified as the major constituents which deviate from the present study findings [27]. The analysis result showed a mixture of different compounds in which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17 compounds) were found in majority followed by oxygenated monoterpene (13 compounds) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (12 compounds). The characteristic aroma of C. amada is contributed by the various combinations of compounds, that is, myrcene, ocimene, cis-, and trans-dihydroocimene [28].

Table 2: Yield percentage of Curcuma amada rhizome oil collected from different regions.

S. No.Sample code% of yield (mean±SD)
1.Ca10.49±0.01
2.Ca20.55±0.015
3.Ca30.19±0.015
4.Ca40.42±0.025
5.Ca50.54±0.01
6.Ca60.17±0.015
7.Ca70.23±0.015
8.Ca80.18±0.005
9.Ca90.13±0.005
10.Ca100.12±0.005
11.Ca110.46±0.025
12.Ca120.13±0.005
13.Ca130.17±0.015
14.Ca140.15±0.01
15.Ca150.50±0.01
16.Ca160.61±0.02
17.Ca171.35±0.029
18.Ca180.76±0.02
19.Ca190.53±0.01
20.Ca200.61±0.02
Figure 2: Class distribution of compounds studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the rhizome essential oil of Curcuma amada.



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Table 3: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of rhizome samples of Curcuma amada.

S. No.CompoundClassificationRetention indexRelative area percentage (%)


RIaRIbCa1Ca2Ca3Ca4Ca5Ca6Ca7Ca8Ca9Ca10
1.α-pineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9359320.60.650.10.40.540.50.40.30.30.46
2.CampheneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9529460.010.060.020.020.040.020.020.010.010.01
3.SabineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9759690.020.040.030.010.030.020.030.020.010.04
4.β-pineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9829742.313.111.233.244.134.163.593.113.63.48
5.MyrceneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon100498869.3571.5669.2467.5972.8168.6770.4671.4272.6568.51
6.α-TerpineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon101710140.020.030.010.020.020.10.030.20.20.14
7p-CymeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon102410200.030.010.010.010.040.020.010.010.010.01
8.LimoneneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon102910240.020.30.020.010.010.010.020.010.020.02
9.EucalyptolOxgenated Monoterpene103310260.010.010.020.030.020.020.010.020.010.4
10.(Z)-β-OcimeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon103610320.40.640.10.50.450.420.50.30.20.02
11.(E)-β-OcimeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon104910444.616.333.654.345.434.524.373.265.022.9
12.TransdecahydronapthaleneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon10521053---0.010.120.020.010.01--
13.γ-TerpineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon10591054----0.01---0.010.04
14.2-NonanoneKetone10801087-0.030.010.010.030.020.020.01--
15.LinaloolOxygenated Monoterpene109310950.020.230.010.010.010.010.010.010.010.42
16.Cis- ThujoneOxygenated Monoterpene110111010.40.840.40.50.740.010.020.010.20.4
17.PerilleneOxygenated Monoterpene110311020.30.20.020.040.10.30.020.020.30.15
18.CamphorOxygenated Monoterpene114411410.010.030.010.010.020.020.01--0.01
19.IsoborneolOxygenated Monoterpene115811550.020.030.010.010.010.020.03--0.01
20.BorneolOxygenated Monoterpene116411650.010.050.020.040.040.020.01--0.01
21.Terpien-4-olOxygenated Monoterpene118211740.010.040.020.030.060.010.010.020.010.02
23.α-TerpineolOxygenated Monoterpene118711860.020.020.010.010.030.010.020.030.020.01
24.MyrtenolOxygenated Monoterpene119811940.010.010.010.010.010.020.040.020.010.02
25.γ-TerpineolOxygenated Monoterpene12081199---0.020.010.030.020.01--
26.Linalool formateOxygenated Monoterpene12281214-0.05-0.010.030.01----
27.NerolOxygenated Monoterpene123012270.010.020.010.010.010.020.010.02--
28.β-PatchouleneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon137413790.020.030.20.40.10.030.020.010.010.02
29.β-CubebeneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon138813870.010.040.010.010.010.010.030.020.020.03
30(E) - CaryophylleneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon141814171.011.430.010.010.02-----
31γ –ElemeneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon142814340.010.010.020.010.04-0.03---
32(E)-β – FarnesceneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon145314540.010.040.010.020.02---0.01-
33Germacrene DSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon14801480------0.010.01--
34CurzereneFuran149514990.020.040.020.020.030.020.030.010.010.03
35γ-CadineneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon151915220.020.05-0.060.04-0.01---
36δ–CadineneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon152315220.040.04-0.010.02-----
37Germacrene BSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon156115590.150.170.020.020.20.02-0.020.020.02
38E-NerolidolOxygenated Sesquiterpene156715610.10.23-0.010.3--0.02--
39SpathulenolOxygenated Sesquiterpene157715770.010.020.010.010.010.02-0.030.020.03
40Caryophyllene-oxideOxygenated Sesquiterpene15851582-0.02--0.02-----
41ar-TurmerolOxygentaed Sesquiterpene15801582-0.04-0.010.030.02---0.02
42ViridiflorolOxygenated Sesquiterpene15991592-0.01-0.020.04--0.02-0.01
43LedolOxygenated Sesquiterpene160016020.01-0.010.01-0.020.020.020.020.01
44CurzerenoneFuran160716050.020.020.020.02-0.030.020.030.020.02
45Humulene epoxideEther161116080.030.01---0.010.01---
46γ-EudesmolOxygenated Sesquiterpene162616300.010.05-0.010.01-0.010.01-0.02
47α-epi-CadinolOxygenated Sesquiterpene163016380.010.02--0.020.020.010.01--
48α-epi-MuurololOxygenated Sesquiterpene164616400.010.030.010.030.010.01-0.020.020.02
49β-EudesmolOxygenated Sesquiterpene166316490.02--0.010.020.01-0.020.01-
50ar-TurmeroneOxygenated Sesquiterpene166816680.30.4--0.03-----
51α-BisabololOxygenated Sesquiterpene168016850.010.040.01-0.030.010.010.020.02-
52CurcuphenolOxygenated Sesquiterpene171217170.010.010.010.020.010.020.020.01-0.02
53ZerumboneOxygenated Sesquiterpene174417320.020.030.010.010.02-0.020.010.020.03
54(Z)-(Z)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene194819604.37.236.424.024.45-5.696.24-5.63
55(E)-(Z)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene198119872.12.922.633.012.153.433.123.593.513.27
56(Z)-(E)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene19901998-----5.13--4.59-
Total86.4497.2284.3884.6492.38287.7988.7388.9490.8986.26
Monoterpene Hydrocarbon77.3882.7474.4376.1883.6578.4879.4578.6782.0476.03
Oxygenated Monoterpene5.838.534.35.597.135.485.113.745.794.41
Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon1.291.850.290.560.480.080.130.070.070.1
Oxygenated Sesquiterpene6.9611.089.137.197.1528.738.9310.058.239.08
Other groups0.070.10.860.050.060.080.080.050.030.05
S. No.CompoundClassificationRetention indexRelative area percentage (%)


RIaRIbCa11Ca12Ca13Ca14Ca15Ca16Ca17Ca18Ca19Ca20
1.α-pineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9359320.40.10.610.340.840.760.740.960.750.84
2.CampheneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9529460.010.020.020.010.040.020.020.040.010.03
3.SabineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9759690.020.010.010.020.020.030.040.020.040.05
4.β-pineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon9829743.014.034.013.493.454.823.664.543.654.12
5.MyrceneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon100498868.4771.0669.4269.4369.6570.9472.9370.6569.8968.45
6.α-TerpineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon101710140.10.010.230.020.010.030.020.140.040.02
7.p-CymeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon102410200.010.020.010.010.030.020.020.030.020.02
8LimoneneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon102910240.050.250.020.130.30.040.210.060.010.03
9.EucalyptolOxgenated Monoterpene103310260.310.20.120.150.210.320.160.220.30.05
10.(Z)-β-OcimeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon103610320.440.150.350.430.430.510.420.620.60.72
11.(E)-β-OcimeneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon104910445.213.284.685.16.234.654.215.444.235.62
12.TransdecahydronapthaleneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon105210530.010.010.010.020.01-0.12-0.010.01
13.γ-TerpineneMonoterpene Hydrocarbon10591054-0.020.020.020.020.03-0.020.02-
14.2-NonanoneKetone108010870.02-0.020.010.010.050.060.020.030.03
15.LinaloolOxygenated Monoterpene109310950.01-0.010.120.10.160.130.080.20.16
16.Cis- ThujoneOxygenated Monoterpene110111010.030.020.10.340.50.750.90.650.40.96
17.PerilleneOxygenated Monoterpene110311020.010.260.210.020.030.020.180.160.230.19
18.CamphorOxygenated Monoterpene114411410.010.020.020.020.020.030.030.030.010.26
19.IsoborneolOxygenated Monoterpene115811550.01-0.010.020.020.040.04-0.010.06
20.BorneolOxygenated Monoterpene116411650.02-0.040.030.020.060.03-0.01-
21.Terpien-4-olOxygenated Monoterpene118211740.04-0.020.040.040.040.050.040.010.05
23.α-TerpineolOxygenated Monoterpene118711860.030.020.030.020.040.030.040.030.020.04
24.MyrtenolOxygenated Monoterpene119811940.020.030.010.020.020.020.06-0.04-
25.γ-TerpineolOxygenated Monoterpene120811990.02-0.020.020.030.020.02-0.02-
26.Linalool formateOxygenated Monoterpene122812140.04-0.010.010.040.060.03-0.030.04
27.NerolOxygenated Monoterpene123012270.010.020.020.020.020.010.010.020.010.03
28.β-PatchouleneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon137413790.03-0.020.010.010.030.030.020.02
29.β-CubebeneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon138813870.020.010.030.020.030.030.040.040.020.04
30.(E) - CaryophylleneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon141814170.89-0.010.640.41.950.881.140.931.65
31.γ–ElemeneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon142814340.01--0.020.020.030.060.060.040.05
32.(E)-β – FarnesceneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon14531454-0.02-0.120.420.460.240.370.320.34
33.Germacrene DSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon14801480--0.03--0.02-0.1--
34.CurzereneFuran149514990.010.030.020.010.030.060.020.090.010.07
35.γ-CadineneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon151915220.02--0.010.020.030.030.020.020.03
36.δ–CadineneSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon152315220.02--0.020.010.01-0.03-0.04
37.Germacrene BSesquiterpene Hydrocarbon156115590.010.050.04-0.030.050.490.460.320.045
38.E-NerolidolOxygenated Sesquiterpene156715610.2-0.030.010.1-0.19--0.21
39.SpathulenolOxygenated Sesquiterpene157715770.010.040.02-0.020.01-0.330.30.42
40.Caryophyllene-oxideOxygenated Sesquiterpene158515820.02---0.010.050.24--0.32
41.ar-TurmerolOxygentaed Sesquiterpene158015820.010.03--0.020.02-0.030.010.04
42.ViridiflorolOxygenated Sesquiterpene159915920.010.01--0.030.01-0.190.030.19
43.LedolOxygenated Sesquiterpene160016020.010.010.03-0.010.010.03-0.010.03
44.CurzerenoneFuran160716050.010.040.020.010.010.350.050.250.30.23
45.Humulene epoxideEther161116080.02---0.030.020.05-0.010.05
46.γ-EudesmolOxygenated Sesquiterpene162616300.010.020.02-0.010.010.020.02-0.01
47.α-epi-CadinolOxygenated Sesquiterpene16301638-0.02-0.010.030.030.030.030.020.03
48.α-epi-MuurololOxygenated Sesquiterpene16461640-0.030.030.020.030.030.020.050.010.02
49.β -EudesmolOxygenated Sesquiterpene16631649-0.02-----0.03--
50.ar-TurmeroneOxygenated Sesquiterpene16681668---0.250.4--0.660.52-
51.α-BisabololOxygenated Sesquiterpene16801685-0.020.030.020.060.010.050.030.030.05
52.CurcuphenolOxygenated Sesquiterpene171217170.020.020.020.030.030.020.02-0.020.03
53.ZerumboneOxygenated Sesquiterpene174417320.020.030.020.020.020.050.05--0.01
54.(Z)-(Z)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene19481960---4.656.21-7.79--5.65
55.(E)-(Z)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene198119872.313.010.242.563.543.012.912.513.122.65
56.(Z)-(E)-Geranyl linaloolOxygenated Sesquiterpene199019986.224.054.69--6.23-6.257.23-
Total88.1986.9985.3388.2993.6695.9997.3796.4893.8694.005
Monoterpene Hydrocarbon78.0479.1679.5179.1781.2482.1782.5582.7479.5779.96
Oxygenated Monoterpene6.244.035.76.417.796.86.497.336.188.22
Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon1.010.110.150.850.972.671.792.331.662.285
Oxygenated Sesquiterpene8.877.355.157.5810.569.8611.4510.3811.619.94
Other groups0.060.070.060.030.080.480.180.360.350.38
Figure 3: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of Curcuma amada rhizome oil detecting various volatile constituents.



[Click here to view]

3.2. Antioxidant Activity

DPPH free radical-scavenging activity of the C. amada ROs of different accessions was investigated. The results were expressed against different concentrations and the IC50 values were calculated [Table 4]. As per the calculated IC50 values, it was observed that Ca17 has got considerable antioxidant properties with an IC50 value of 32.05 μg/mL, whereas Ca10 has shown the lowest with IC50 value of 38.2 μg/mL, indicating the influence of phytochemical variation, geographic distribution, and edaphic factors on the measurement of antioxidant properties. The present study results are in agreement with one of the previous reports, which showed IC50 value of RO to be 34.7 mg/mL [21]. A report has shown appreciable antioxidant property of RO of C. amada with IC50 of 25 mg/mL [7]. It can be concluded that with an increase in the concentration of the RO, an increase in the scavenging activity was observed. Various reports were presented on different extracts of leaf and rhizome [4,9,29], but to date, very scanty reports were presented on the antioxidant activity of RO [4,9]. Therefore, the present report can be used for further analysis of the scavenging property of RO which can be used in baking industry as natural antioxidant.

Table 4: DPPH free radical scavenging activity of C. amada rhizome essential oil.

AccessionIC50 (µg/mL)
Ca134
Ca233.4
Ca336.65
Ca434.6
Ca533.47
Ca636.81
Ca734.56
Ca835.5
Ca937.34
Ca1038.2
Ca1134.4
Ca1237.46
Ca1336.8
Ca1437.8
Ca1536.67
Ca1635.6
Ca1732.05
Ca1833.09
Ca1934.2
Ca2034.8
Ascorbic acid5

3.3. Antimicrobial Activity

The antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oils of C. amada accessions was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by measuring the MIC values. The ROs of all the accessions demonstrated variable degrees of antibacterial potential against tested microbes. The inhibitory activity of C. amada was compared to that of the commercially available antibiotic Ampicillin which was used as the control. The MIC values of rhizome essential oils ranged from 1.56 to 25 μg/mL [Table 5]. It was observed that the rhizome essential oils showed more activity against A. baumannii (MIC: 1.56 μg/mL), followed by S. aureus (MIC: 3.12 μg/mL), E. coli, and B. subtilis (MIC: 6.25 μg/mL, respectively). Among all the accessions, Ca17 showed the highest antimicrobial potential against all the strains (3.12 μg/mL against B. subtilis and S. aureus, 1.56 μg/mL against A. baumannii and 6.25 μg/mL against E. coli). A similar report was showing potential antimicrobial activity by agar disk-diffusion method against S. aureus, E. coli, and B. Subtilis (18 mm, 16 mm, and 16 mm of inhibition zone, respectively) using ROs [19]. In the current study, it has been shown that the growth of the tested bacteria can be inhibited using C. amada ROs and that the bactericidal activity becomes more potent with an increasing concentration of RO. Although, one report exhibited antibacterial activity using ROs against Ralstonia solanacearum showing inhibition zone ranging from 3 to 7 mm [30], but no clear-cut data are available on the MIC values of rhizome essential oil of C. amada till date. The antimicrobial properties of the essential oil are believed to be attributed to its high levels of monoterpenes, which have been found to exhibit effectiveness against a wide range of susceptible microorganisms [19]. The present study findings from the GC-MS analysis of the rhizome samples constituted a rich amount of monoterpenes; its synergistic effects may contribute to its antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the variation in antimicrobial activity may be possible due to various edaphic factors and different geographical locations. From the above results, it can be concluded that the tested microbes are sensitive toward the ROs of C. amada. Therefore, the data can be utilized for making value-added products in the food industry.

Table 5: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC in μg/ml) of C. amada essential oils against different strains.

Accession no.Micro-organisms

B. subtilisS. aureusA. baumanniiE. coli
Ca112.56.256.2512.5
Ca212.56.256.256.25
Ca3252512.512.5
Ca412.512.512.56.25
Ca56.253.126.256.25
Ca612.56.2512.56.25
Ca712.512.52512.5
Ca86.256.256.2512.5
Ca96.253.123.126.25
Ca102512.512.525
Ca116.256.2512.56.25
Ca122512.53.126.25
Ca136.2512.56.2512.5
Ca1412.56.256.2525
Ca156.2512.512.512.5
Ca166.256.256.256.25
Ca173.123.121.566.25
Ca18256.2512.512.5
Ca196.253.126.2512.5
Ca203.126.253.126.25
Ampicillin (standard)8448

4. CONCLUSION

With the advent of modernity, consumers are concerned about synthetic additives in foods, which have forced food processors to seek alternatives, resulting in the need for “clean label” products in the food industry. In the present study, C. amada rhizomes were found to have good antioxidant and antimicrobial potential which may be attributed to the presence of terpenoids. These findings could enhance the use of C. amada rhizome oil and could meet the demands of consumers for healthier foods by promoting natural alternatives.


5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank professor M. R. Nayak, President of Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, and S.C. Si, Dean of the Centre for Biotechnology for their constant support and encouragement.


6. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


7. FUNDING

There is no funding to report.


8. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


9. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


10. DATA AVAILABILITY

In this study of Curcuma amada, information and data used are listed in the references, and are available for public access if so desired.


11. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

REFERENCES

1.  Sabu M. Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India. Calicut, India:Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy;2006.

2.  Sasikumar B. Genetic resource of Curcuma:Diversity, characterization and utilization. Plant Genet Resour 2005;3:230-51. [CrossRef]

3.  Leong-Skornikova J, Newman M. Gingers of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Singapore:Oxford Graphic Printers Pvt Ltd.;2015. [CrossRef]

4.  Sutar J, Monalisa K, Pati K, Chauhan VB, Behera S. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Curcuma amada Roxb:An important medicinal plant. Plant Arch 2020;20:193-6.

5.  Akter J, Takara K, Islam MJ, Hossain MA, Sano A, Hou D. Isolation and structural elucidation of antifungal compounds from Curcuma amada. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:123-9. [CrossRef]

6.  Policegoudra RS, Aradhya SM. Biochemical changes and antioxidant activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizomes during postharvest storage at different conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 2007;46:189-94. [CrossRef]

7.  Tamta A, Prakash O, Punetha H, Pant AK, Spencer J. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant potential of essential oil and rhizome extracts of Curcuma amada Roxb. Cogent Chem 2016;2:1168067. [CrossRef]

8.  Moon K, Khadabadi SS, Deokate UA, Deore SL. Caesalpinia bonducella F, an overview. Rep Opin 2010;2:83-90.

9.  Policegoudra RS, Chandrasekhar RH, Aradhya SM, Singh L. Cytotoxicity, platelet aggregation inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Curcuma amada Roxb. extracts. Food Technol Biotechnol 2011;49:162-8.

10.  Mahadevi R, Kavitha R. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Curcuma amada:A review. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2020;11:3546-55. [CrossRef]

11.  Al-Qudah TS, Malloh SA, Nawaz A, Ayub MA, Nisar S, Jilani MI, et al. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.):A phytochemical mini review, Int J Chem Biochem Sci 2017;11:51-7.

12.  Hossain CF, Al-Amin M, Rahman KM, Sarker A, Alam MM, Chowdhury MH, et al. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;163:273-7. [CrossRef]

13.  AdeOluwa OO, Ojewunmi AO. Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.):Natural Treatment of some Symptoms of COVID-19. African Organic Agriculture;2020. 15.

14.  Gupta VK. The Wealth of India:First Supplemented Series (Raw Materials). Vol. 2. Pusa, New Delhi:Council of Scientific and Industrial Research;2001. 259-60.

15.  Young HY, Chiang CT, Huang YL, Pan FP, Chen GL. Analytical and stability studies of ginger preparations. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:149-53. [CrossRef]

16.  Sharifi-Rad M, Kumar AV, Zucca P, Varoni EM, Dini L, Panzarini E, et al. Lifestyle, oxidative stress, and antioxidants:Back and forth in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Front Physiol 2020;11:694. [CrossRef]

17.  Kurutas EB. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress:Current state. Nutr J 2015;15:71. [CrossRef]

18.  Tsatsakis AM, Docea AO, Calina D, Buga AM, Zlatian O, Gutnikov S, et al. Hormetic neurobehavioral effects of low dose toxic chemical mixtures in real-life risk simulation (RLRS) in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2019;125:141-9. [CrossRef]

19.  George M, Britto SJ, Arulappan T, Marandi RR, Kindo I, Dessy VJ. Phytochemical, antioxidant, and antibacterial studies on the essential oil of the rhizome of Curcuma amada Roxb. Int J Curr Res 2015;7:18098-104.

20.  More B. Overview of medicine-its importance and impact. DJ Int J Med Res 2016;1:1-8. [CrossRef]

21.  Behera S, Monalisa K, Meher RK, Mohapatra S, Madkami SK, Das PK, et al. Phytochemical fidelity and therapeutic activity of micropropagated Curcuma amada Roxb.:A valuable medicinal herb. Ind Crops Prod 2022;176:114401. [CrossRef]

22.  Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Carol Stream:Allured Publishing Corporation;2007.

23.  Sahoo S, Parida R, Singh S, Padhy RN, Nayak S. Evaluation of yield, quality, and antioxidant activity of essential oil of in vitro propagated Kaempferia galanga Linn. J Acute Dis 2014;3:124-30. [CrossRef]

24.  Dash M, Singh S, Sahoo BC, Sahoo S, Sahoo RK, Nayak S, et al. Potential role of Indian long pepper (Piper longum L.) volatiles against free radicals and multidrug resistant isolates. Nat Prod Res 2021;36:4271-5. [CrossRef]

25.  Padalia RC, Verma RS, Sundaresan V, Chauhan A, Chanotiya CS, Yadav A. Volatile terpenoid compositions of leaf and rhizome of Curcuma amada Roxb. from Northern India. J Essent Oil Res 2013;25:17-22. [CrossRef]

26.  Narayanankutty A, Sasidharan A, Job JT, Rajagopal R, Alfarhan A, Kim YO, et al. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome essential oils as source of environmental friendly biocides:Comparison of the chemical composition, antibacterial, insecticidal and larvicidal properties of essential oils extracted by different methods. Environ Res 2021;202:111718. [CrossRef]

27.  Srivastava AK, Srivastava SK, Shah NC. Constituents of the rhizome essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. from India. J Essent Oil Res 2001;13:63-4. [CrossRef]

28.  Srinivasan MR, Chandrasekhara N, Srinivasan K. Cholesterol lowering activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Eur Food Res Technol 2008;227:1159-63. [CrossRef]

29.  Nag A, Banerjee R, Goswami P, Bandyopadhyay M, Mukherjee A. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Alpinia galanga, Curcuma amada, and Curcuma caesia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2021;11:363-74. [CrossRef]

30.  Karthika R, Prasath D, Leela NK, Bhai RS, Anandaraj M. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of mango ginger rhizome extracts against bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. J Spices Arom Crops 2017;26:101-6.

Reference

1. Sabu M. Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India. Calicut, India: Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy; 2006.

2. Sasikumar B. Genetic resource of Curcuma: Diversity, characterization and utilization. Plant Genet Resour 2005;3:230-51. https://doi.org/10.1079/PGR200574

3. Leong-Skornikova J, Newman M. Gingers of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Singapore: Oxford Graphic Printers Pvt Ltd.; 2015. https://doi.org/10.3850/S2382581215000356

4. Sutar J, Monalisa K, Pati K, Chauhan VB, Behera S. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Curcuma amada Roxb: An important medicinal plant. Plant Arch 2020;20:193-6.

5. Akter J, Takara K, Islam MJ, Hossain MA, Sano A, Hou D. Isolation and structural elucidation of antifungal compounds from Curcuma amada. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:123-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-7645.254938

6. Policegoudra RS, Aradhya SM. Biochemical changes and antioxidant activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizomes during postharvest storage at different conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 2007;46:189-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.04.012

7. Tamta A, Prakash O, Punetha H, Pant AK, Spencer J. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant potential of essential oil and rhizome extracts of Curcuma amada Roxb. Cogent Chem 2016;2:1168067. https://doi.org/10.1080/23312009.2016.1168067

8. Moon K, Khadabadi SS, Deokate UA, Deore SL. Caesalpinia bonducella F, an overview. Rep Opin 2010;2:83-90.

9. Policegoudra RS, Chandrasekhar RH, Aradhya SM, Singh L. Cytotoxicity, platelet aggregation inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Curcuma amada Roxb. extracts. Food Technol Biotechnol 2011;49:162-8.

10. Mahadevi R, Kavitha R. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Curcuma amada: A review. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2020;11:3546-55. https://doi.org/10.26452/ijrps.v11i3.2510

11. Al-Qudah TS, Malloh SA, Nawaz A, Ayub MA, Nisar S, Jilani MI, et al. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.): A phytochemical mini review, Int J Chem Biochem Sci 2017;11:51-7.

12. Hossain CF, Al-Amin M, Rahman KM, Sarker A, Alam MM, Chowdhury MH, et al. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;163:273-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.01.018

13. AdeOluwa OO, Ojewunmi AO. Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.): Natural Treatment of some Symptoms of COVID-19. African Organic Agriculture; 2020. p. 15.

14. Gupta VK. The Wealth of India: First Supplemented Series (Raw Materials). Vol. 2. Pusa, New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 2001. p. 259-60.

15. Young HY, Chiang CT, Huang YL, Pan FP, Chen GL. Analytical and stability studies of ginger preparations. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:149-53. https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2756

16. Sharifi-Rad M, Kumar AV, Zucca P, Varoni EM, Dini L, Panzarini E, et al. Lifestyle, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: Back and forth in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Front Physiol 2020;11:694. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00694

17. Kurutas EB. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: Current state. Nutr J 2015;15:71. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-016-0186-5

18. Tsatsakis AM, Docea AO, Calina D, Buga AM, Zlatian O, Gutnikov S, et al. Hormetic neurobehavioral effects of low dose toxic chemical mixtures in real-life risk simulation (RLRS) in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2019;125:141-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.043

19. George M, Britto SJ, Arulappan T, Marandi RR, Kindo I, Dessy VJ. Phytochemical, antioxidant, and antibacterial studies on the essential oil of the rhizome of Curcuma amada Roxb. Int J Curr Res 2015;7:18098-104.

20. More B. Overview of medicine-its importance and impact. DJ Int J Med Res 2016;1:1-8. https://doi.org/10.18831/djmed.org/2016011001

21. Behera S, Monalisa K, Meher RK, Mohapatra S, Madkami SK, Das PK, et al. Phytochemical fidelity and therapeutic activity of micropropagated Curcuma amada Roxb.: A valuable medicinal herb. Ind Crops Prod 2022;176:114401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.114401

22. Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry. Carol Stream: Allured Publishing Corporation; 2007.

23. Sahoo S, Parida R, Singh S, Padhy RN, Nayak S. Evaluation of yield, quality, and antioxidant activity of essential oil of in vitro propagated Kaempferia galanga Linn. J Acute Dis 2014;3:124-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-6189(14)60028-7

24. Dash M, Singh S, Sahoo BC, Sahoo S, Sahoo RK, Nayak S, et al. Potential role of Indian long pepper (Piper longum L.) volatiles against free radicals and multidrug resistant isolates. Nat Prod Res 2021;36:4271-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1975703

25. Padalia RC, Verma RS, Sundaresan V, Chauhan A, Chanotiya CS, Yadav A. Volatile terpenoid compositions of leaf and rhizome of Curcuma amada Roxb. from Northern India. J Essent Oil Res 2013;25:17-22. 26. Narayanankutty A, Sasidharan A, Job JT, Rajagopal R, Alfarhan A, Kim YO, et al. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome essential oils as source of environmental friendly biocides: Comparison of the chemical composition, antibacterial, insecticidal and larvicidal properties of essential oils extracted by different methods. Environ Res 2021;202:111718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111718

27. Srivastava AK, Srivastava SK, Shah NC. Constituents of the rhizome essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. from India. J Essent Oil Res 2001;13:63-4. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2001.9699608

28. Srinivasan MR, Chandrasekhara N, Srinivasan K. Cholesterol lowering activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Eur Food Res Technol 2008;227:1159-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0831-0

29. Nag A, Banerjee R, Goswami P, Bandyopadhyay M, Mukherjee A. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Alpinia galanga, Curcuma amada, and Curcuma caesia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2021;11:363-74. https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.319571

30. Karthika R, Prasath D, Leela NK, Bhai RS, Anandaraj M. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of mango ginger rhizome extracts against bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. J Spices Arom Crops 2017;26:101-6.

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