Home >Archive

Volume: 3, Issue: 2, March-April, 2015
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3202

Research Article

Rapid decolorization of synthetic melanoidin by bacterial extract and their mediated silver nanoparticles as support

R. Palani velana, P.M. Ayyasamya, R. Kathiravanb, B. Subashnic

  Author Affiliations


The present study was aimed at utilization of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its mediated synthetic melanoidin decolorization using bacterial extract in an immobilized condition. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by using the Bacillus sp. BAC1 via extracellular methodology. Brown color biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopic analysis. Further characterization using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis revealed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with smooth surface morphology. Bacterial extracellular supernatant exhibited more than 65% of melanoidin decolorization (in 12 h) under normal conditions. In contrast, under similar conditions, biosynthesized AgNPs showed 82% removal. The cell free extract immobilized with synthesized AgNPs yields maximum melanoidin removal 92% in 12 h; this emphasizes nano-coupled biomaterial immobilization as a suitable technique for rapid melanoidin decolorization.


Melanoidin, Molasses spent wash, Decolorization, Silver nanoparticle, Immobilization.

Citation: R. Palani velan, P.M. Ayyasamy, R. Kathiravan B. Subashni., Rapid decolorization of synthetic melanoidin by bacterial extract and their mediated silver nanoparticles as support. J App Biol Biotech, 2015; 3 (02): 006-011.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


1. Chaturvedi, S., Chandra, R., & Rai, V. Isolation and characterization of Phragmites australis (L.) rhizosphere bacteria from contaminated site for bioremediation of colored distillery effluent. Ecol. Eng., 2006; 27:202-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.02.008

2. Reynolds, T.M. Chemistry of nonenzymic browning. I. The reaction between aldoses and amines. Adv. Food Res., 1968; 12:1-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2628(08)60005-1

3. Tiwari, S., Rai, P., Yadav, S.K., & Gaur, R. A novel thermotolerant Pediococcus acidilactici B-25 strain for color, COD, and BOD reduction of distillery effluent for end use applications. Environ Sci Pollut Res., 2013; 20:4046-4058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1339-5

4. Pena, M., Coca, M., Gonzalez, R., Rioja, R., & Garcia, M.T. Chemical oxidation of waste water from molasses fermentation with ozone. Chemosphere., 2003; 51:893-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00159-0

5. Palani velan, R., Rajakumar, S., Suresh S.S. Raja., Ayyasamy, P.M. Optimization of prime parameters for textile dye decolorization by design of experiments (DOEs) using Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1. Desalination and water treatment. 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.944583

6. Daneshvar, D., Salari, A., & Niaei, M. Immobilization of TiO2 nanopowder on glass beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye C.I. Direct Red 23. J. Environ. Sci., 2005; 40:1605-1617.

7. Singh, N.K., Purkayastha, B.D., Roy, J.K., Banik, R.M., & Yashpal, M. Nanoparticle-induced controlled biodegradation and its mechanism in poly (epsilon-caprolactone). ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces., 2010; 2:69-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am900584r

8. Wang, H., Zhang, W., Zhao, J., Xu, L., Zhou, C., Chang, L., & Wang, L. Rapid decolorization of phenolic azo dyes by immobilized laccase with Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles as support. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2013; 52:4401-4407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie302627c

9. Priyaragini, Veena, S., Swetha, D., Karthik, L., Gaurav K., & Bhaskara Rao, K.V. Evaluating the effectiveness of marine actinobacterial extract and its mediated titanium dioxide nanoparticle in the degradation of azo dyes. J. Environ. Sci., 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(13)60470-2

10. Mukhopadhyay, A., Dasgupta, A.K., Chattopadhyay, D.J., & Chakrabarti, K. Improvement of thermostability and activity of pectate lyase in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Bioresour. Technol., 2012; 116:348-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.094

11. Bhatia, M., Girdhar, A., Chandrakar, B., & Tiwari, A. Implicating nanoparticles as potential biodegradation enhancers: A Review. J Nanomed Nanotechol. 2013; 4:175.doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000175. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7439.1000175

12. Sadighi, A., & Faramarzi, M.A. Congo red decolorization by immobilized laccase through chitosan nanoparticles on the glass beads. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng.2013; 44:156-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2012.09.012

13. Mahmoodi, N.M. Arabloo, M., & Abdi, J. Laccase immobilized manganese ferrite nanoparticle: Synthesis and LSSVM intelligent modeling of decolorization. Water Res. 2014; 67:216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.09.011

14. Junejo, Y., Sirajuddin, Baykal, A., Safdar, M., & Balouch, A. A novel green synthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with its ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of methyl green dye. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2014; 290:499-503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.11.106

15. Vanaja, M., Paulkumar, K., Baburaja, M., Rajeshkumar, S., Gnanajobitha, G., Malarkodi, C., Sivakavinesan, M., & Annadurai, G. Degradation of methylene blue using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications. 2014; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/742346.

16. Krutyakov, Y.A., Kudrinskiy, A.A., Olenin, A.Y., & Lisichkin, G.V. Synthesis and properties of silver nanoparticles: advances and prospects. Russ. Chem. Rev., 2008; 77:233-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1070/RC2008v077n03ABEH003751

17. Kumar, P., & Chandra, R. Decolorisation and detoxification of synthetic molasses melanoidins by individual and mixed cultures of Bacillus spp. Bioresour. Technol., 2006; 97: 2096-2102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.10.012

18. Das, V.L., Thomas, R., Varghese, R.T., Soniya, E.V., Mathew, J., & Radhakrishnan, E.K. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by the Bacillus strain CS 11 isolated from industrialized area. 3 Biotech., 2014; 4:121-126.

19. Anil Kumar, S., Abyaneh, M.K., Gosavi Sulabha, S.W., Ahmad, A., & Khan, M.I. Nitrate reductase mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from AgNO3. Biotechnol Lett., 2007; 29:439-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-006-9256-7

20. Kalimuthu, K., Babu, R.S., Venkataraman, D., Mohd, B., & Gurunathan, S. Biosynthesis of silver nanocrystals by Bacillus licheniformis. Colloids Surf B., 2008; 65:150-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.02.018

21. Gurunathan, S., Lee, K.J., Kalishwaralal, K., Sheikpranbabu, S., Vaidyanathan, R., Eom, S.H. Antiangiogenic properties of silver nanoparticles. Biomaterials., 2009; 30:6341-6350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.08.008

22. Banerjee, P., Sau, S., Das, P., & Mukhopadhyay, A. Green synthesis of silver nanocomposite for treatment of textile dye. Nanosci Technol., 2014; 1:1-6.

23. Paulkumar, K., Rajeshkumar, S., Gnanajobitha, G., Vanaja, M., Malarkodi, C., Annadurai, G. Biosynthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 3053 and assessment of its antifungal activity. ISRN Nanomaterials., 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/317963.

24. Nidhi, S., Prasenjit, S., Karthik, R., & Jayanthi, A. Biosynthesis of silver and selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus sp. JAPSK2 and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Der Pharmacia Lettre., 2014; 6:175-181.

25. Yadav, S., & Chandra, R. Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (mm) from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) during the decolorization by a potential bacterial consortium. Biodegradation., 2012; 23: 609-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-012-9537-x

26. Hwang, C.F., Jiang, Y.S., Sheu, S.C., Hsieh, P.C., & Guo, J.H. Purification and characterization of a novel glucose oxidase-like melanoidin decolorizing enzyme from Geotrichum sp. No. 56. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2011; 5:3256-3266.

27. Apollo, S., Onyongo, M.S., & Ochieng, A. UV/H2O2/TiO2/Zeolite Hybrid system for treatment of molasses wastewater. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng., 2014; 33:107-117.

28. Mukhopadhyay, A., Dasgupta, A.K., Chakrabarti, K. Thermostability, pH stability and dye degrading activity of a bacterial laccase are enhanced in the presence of Cu2O nanoparticles. Bioresour. Technol., 2013; 127:25-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.087

29. Sohn, O.J., Kim, C.K., Rhee, J.I. Immobilization of glucose oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase onto magnetic nanoparticles for bioprocess monitoring system. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 2008; 13:716-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12257-008-0096-2

30. Mohajershojaei, K., Khosravi, A., & Mahmoodi, N.M. Decolorization of dyes using immobilized laccase enzyme on zinc ferrite nanoparticle from single and binary systems. Fibers Polym., 2014; 15:2139-2145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12221-014-2139-y

Article Metrics

Similar Articles

Isolation and screening of dye decolorizing bacteria from industrial effluent
Mayur Gahlout, Poonam Chauhan, Hiren Prajapati, Suman Saroj, Poonam Narale